Silk Roads Series: Art of Tea

Silk Roads: Art of Tea by Jewel K. Goode

Although intercultural exchanges involving tea developed between European ports, such as those in Portugal, and the Far East from 16th century onwards, tea-drinking is believed to have it origins rooted in southern Asia, dating to the Han period.  It was first used as a medicinal elixir concocted from untreated green leaves. However, by the T’ang period, tea was enjoyed as a refreshing beverage, prepared from leaves that had been moistened and formed into a dense mold.  Anecdotes dating to the 8th century reveal how the city of Chang-an had a flourishing number of tea shops, and many touted the health benefits of tea rather than wine.

These intercultural exchanges were the direct result of the expansive network of maritime and land routes that explorers, missionaries, physicians actively travelled across. By embarking on such journeys, they were also able to transmit elements of Western culture to the Far East, which were later transformed and reconceptualized by those regions, according to their specific aesthetic preferences.   As a result of this transnational fluidity between diverse regions and populations along the Silk Roads, significant sociocultural imprints and innovative developments related to tea consumption eventually appeared in the West.  Such activity permitted the free flow of ideas, goods, and concepts – the effects of which are still experienced internationally throughout contemporary society.

Dynamic exchanges and sociocultural developments concerning tea were often closely associated with everyday life, daily rituals, spirituality, and community.   In some cases, consuming tea was even associated with the Taoist notions involving extraordinary psychic-spiritual and physical effects.  Therefore, tea soon made an entrance into creative spheres, including poetry and literature.   As a result, its popularity quickly rose throughout the Far East, with poets and artists writing about the pleasures of tea, tea customs, and traditions.

Thus, an aesthetic culture developed around tea-drinking, and achieved a considerable amount of notoriety, especially in medieval Japan in the 14th and 15th centuries.  Artists such as Murata Shuko, Takeno Joo, and Sen Rikyu developed a particular approach that was characterized by the term “wabi”, or frugality.  The art of the “wabi” tea ceremony, or “chado” (“the way of tea”), was borne out of a synthesis of various Japanese aesthetic and religious traditions.  Over time, it continued to exert its influence on intercultural dialogue and exchanges.  The art of tea was not only passed down through generations, but it was diffused to the West and across various continents.  The powerful sociocultural elements embedded in tea were due to its ability to develop and solidify community bonds.

Tea was first exported from Macau through Malacca.  It then passed from Manila to the Indian sub-continent before reaching the West.  Cultures and regions around the world have continued to adapt the ubiquitous product according to their own societal norms.  Similar to that of the Chinese culture, tea is often associated with pre-engagement rituals between a future bride and groom.  The British and Dutch also incorporated the beverage into their lifestyles, where it developed connotations linked to hospitality, mutual understanding, local tradition, and community.  Bento de Gois, Italian missionary, Sabatino de Ursis, and Italian cartographer, Matteo Ricci are examples of individuals during the 16th and 17th centuries who actively explored unknown regions in the Far East in order to gather knowledge, understanding, and appreciation.  Their experiences abroad were later transmitted and incorporated into elements of western society and traditions.

Moreover, in the Portuguese language, “cha” is derived from the Cantonese pronunciation of the word, while “tha” and “tea” are derivatives of the Fukinese dialect. The transcendent power of tea as a beverage and renowned universal concept, is visibly translated in old teas salons on Rua Nova de El-Rei (also known as Avenida do Cinco de Outubro), as well as houses typical to Macau. These tea salons referenced Mediterranean urban structures, built around squares and cobblestoned streets, and were reminiscent of European cities. Thus, the transmission of tea to other regions of the world was possible due to the cultural significance it carried, both as a product and a concept.  Positive connotations associated with tea and its benefits still exist in contemporary society, due to the active exchange of ideas, concepts, and goods along the Silk Roads, and beyond.

Author: Jewel K. Goode.  Global Communications Specialist, Writer, Art Curator, and Photographer

Image © Rain of Joy.  Sources provided upon request.

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Silk Roads Series: Sericulture

Silk Roads: Sericulture by Jewel K. GoodeThe active exchange of goods, ideas, and expertise has played a significant role in the evolution of sericulture, or silk production, along the Silk Roads.  This is reflected in distinctive artistic styles and craftsmanship that has continued to spread throughout various regions. The textile was so valued, it is said that by the 4th century BC, Greeks and Romans began referring to parts of the Far East as the land of “Seres”, or silk.  Moreover, sericulture techniques were heavily guarded and controlled by authorities.  Silk was considered a precious textile that was reserved for the aristocracy, and its use was emblematic of authority and power. The textile was preferred by royal families, and its weavers enjoyed an elevated social status comparable to that of painters or sculptors. During the Han and Tang dynasties, the absolute value of silk increased, as well as its production.  Due to its versatility and popularity, silk gradually became identified with general use.  Clothing made of silk is characteristically lightweight and ethereal, providing warmth in cool temperatures, and relief in hotter temperatures. Not only was it used for clothing production and decoration in the Far East, but it also assumed cultural significance in the economy as a highly sought, valuable commodity.

During silk production, silk threads are woven into textile cloth or used for embroidery work. Literary sources such as The Book of History and The Book of Rites detail aspects of sericulture.  Reeling silk and spinning were household duties attributed to women, while weaving and embroidery were often conducted in workshops. In silk-producing provinces, the intergenerational aspect was apparent.  Women devoted a large portion of the year to care of the silkworms, as well as to the unraveling, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and embroidery of the silk. Initially, production of both silk twine and silk cloth could be attributed solely to those in the Far East.

However, around 300 CE, the production of silk twine appeared in regions as far west as the Roman province of Syria, created during the Roman Empire (27 BC – 393 CE). It was here that the Sasanian, Shapur II (310-379 CE), established the most influential silk-weaving industry.  From 224-651 CE, the Sasanians exerted significant influence in the world, and their expansion caused considerable conflict in Rome.  The Sasanian region was an expansive area, recognized for its expert weavers, especially in cities such as Susa, which is located in modern Iran.   Sasanian silks were then exported to both the East and West, by way of maritime and terrestrial routes.  Those textiles originating in the Far East and Indian sub-continent, where silk-producing centers also appeared, inspired their designs.  These designs were then incorporated into local textile patterns according to aesthetic preferences.  Conversely, weavers originating from the Far East borrowed Sasanian motifs, thus transforming and recontextualizing the designs into their own culture.

Weavers from Byzantium, who considered themselves inheritors of the ancient Roman Empire, exhibited a similar trend.  These Byzantine weavers generally hailed from cities such as Constantinople and Antioch.  Two main types of silk weaving patterns were produced.  The first was based on hunting or battle scenes, while the latter was comprised of a series of circles enveloping birds and other small animals. A Byzantine silk fragment from the tomb of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne (742-814), incorporates both of these graphic designs.  The burgeoning Byzantine textile industry subsequently led to the spread of silk weaving even further west. Roger II of Sicily (1095-1154) introduced silk weavers from Constantinople to Palermo in the 12th century.

As a result of this act, the Italian silk industry was borne, and still exists. Moreover, during Pax Mongolia, silk textiles emanating from the Far East were ubiquitous throughout the region now known as Italy.  This was apparent with the juxtaposition and visible translation of Italian designs with Far Eastern influences onto luxurious textiles.  The resultant patterns encapsulated a greater degree of fluidity and boldness.  In addition, the appearance of heraldic animals typical of the Sasanian style decreased, while flourishing arabesque ornamentation and scrawling vegetation were adapted from Far Eastern designs.

Moreover, the UNESCO World Heritage site, La Lonja de la Seda (Silk Exchange) in Valencia, Spain, built from 1482-1522, assumed a pronounced role in the evolution of sericulture.  Emblematic of the power and wealth associated with the Mediterranean mercantile city in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was originally used for trading in silk, and renowned as a center of commerce.  In contemporary society, the production of silk worldwide has steadily increased, especially in the Far East, despite the manufacture of synthetic textiles that are able to substitute its use. Regional variations of silk weaving exist, but the transmission of savoir-faire, knowledge, and expertise from one generation to the next allow these techniques to be disseminated throughout local and international communities along the Silk Roads, even today.

Author: Jewel K. Goode, Global Communications Specialist, Writer, Art Curator,  and Photographer

Image © bigjom.jom.  Sources provided upon request.

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Silk Road Series: Classical Arabic Poetry

Postcards: La Jolla, California

La Jolla, California

La Jolla, California. Hibiscus flower. Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2017. All Rights Reserved.

 

La Jolla, California. Hibiscus flower. Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2017. All Rights Reserved.

 

La Jolla, California. Hibiscus flower. Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2017. All Rights Reserved.

Interview with Russian Artist, Oleg Sheludyakov

Interview with Russian Artist, Oleg Sheludyakov

Oleg Sheludyakov, artist

I met Russian artist Oleg Sheludyakov (b. 1971) while we were both living in Berlin, Germany several years ago.  His gentle, unassuming nature complemented the intensity of his gaze, revealing a highly intuitive, introspective individual whose visual language matches his intellectualism.   As a friend and avid supporter, I have followed his artistic journey and continue to remain inspired by his ability to evolve.  The artist currently resides in Marseille, France.  His work was recently part of the Yellow Butterfly Effect exhibition in his Siberian hometown of Novosibirsk, Russia.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Sunset in Paris, 2010. Oil on canvas, 100 x 100 cm

I asked Sheludyakov to describe when he decided to embark on this particular journey, and it would seem that he was always destined to become a professional painter. In 1977 his parents enrolled him in Kaleidoscope Fine Art School for children. He recounted with nostalgia being completely enchanted by the ambiance of the atelier with its fresh smell of paint, life-like plaster models, magical paint brushes, colorful palettes, and a profusion of art history books – a veritable Paradise on Earth.  It was during these formative years that Sheludyakov decided to embark on a non-traditional professional path.

Oleg Sheludyakov. The Last Day of Summer, 2017. Acrylic on canvas, 40 cm x 40 cm.

The artist’s trajectory has been susceptible to frequent oscillations and shifts in forward momentum.  However, it has never diverged far from its intended course.  At the age of 17, he began his studies in architecture at the Novosibirsk Engineering Institute and later graduated with a degree in Philosophy and Humanities from Novosibirsk State University in 1995. He then studied monumental painting at Novosibirsk Fine Arts and Architectural Academy and drawing at the Fine Arts Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Light Day, 2012. Oil on canvas, 120 x 160 cm.

Sheludyakov’s paintings clearly reflect his Russian sensibilities lightly dusted with French influences – a charming combination which reinforces the enigmatic nature of his work and clearly distinguishes him from other contemporary artists. Over the years, the prolific painter has capitalized on a vast artistic repertoire and solid work ethic.  His work is deeply personal, reflecting profound intellectual and artistic growth.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Night in Montmartre, 2010. Oil on canvas, 80 x 80 cm.

The artist’s signature work reflects a very specific iconography and complex visual lexicon, with extensive references to his native Russia. He has masterfully implemented particular subjects, images, and applied techniques which faithfully appear as leitmotif.  The nu féminin (female nudes), seaside and urban landscapes, nautical themes, music, animals and a profusion of cobalt blue throughout are primary examples.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Hokku, 2009. Oil on canvas, 30 cm x 24 cm.

With half of his international clientele preferring the nu féminin, Sheludyakov’s work is constantly evolving and reflects a deep appreciation of the female form. This fact intrigued me, and I was interested in the specific demographics of those who purchase his nu féminin.  External variables such as age, nationality, and profession vary widely – from students to investment bankers.  Sensitive to feminine beauty, Russians tend to be the most frequent buyers, followed by Germans, French, and Americans, who often purchase his most expensive works.

Subject, style, color palette, and technique afford a clear, visible translation of human emotion and themes.  The vast spectrum may range from pure, gentle and harmonious to somber, expressive, and frenetic.  With a large percentage of his work explicitly devoted to the creation of the nu féminin, I was curious as to origins of this admiration. His response was both philosophical and poetic.  The artist believes very few things rival the ethereal beauty of this particular genreHe is careful to define beauty within the realm of abstract or conceptual theories.  By respecting the boundaries between intangibility and physicality during the creative process, Sheludyakov is able to explore the origins of beauty, grace, femininity, elegance, harmony, and sensuality without restraint.  The question remains as to how Sheludyakov chooses his models.  Selection of nude models is surprisingly uncomplicated — acquaintances, friends, or family members, for example.  It is simply a matter of identifying specific traits unique to each individual, and then accurately translating those traits into a cohesive image.

Jewel Goode. Oleg Sheludyakov, French Evening, 2015
Oleg Sheludyakov, French Evening, 2015

Sheludyakov only has one exception: professional models. Through experience, their body has become a logical, physical tool which remains distinctly detached from their authentic self. This ultimately limits emotional emancipation and decreases the possibility of unveiling the true, feminine essence.  Although this degree of professionalism is highly admirable, the artist prefers the innocence of amateur models.  Sheludyakov is known to be a prolific painter, so I asked about the duration of the entire process.  He stated that creative processes vary from beginning to end. For example, the technical aspects of creating a nu féminin are somewhat similar to that of painting landscapes or producing images from the imagination.

However, the existential journey inherent to the production of a nu féminin is unrivalled due to lasting emotional bonds between subject and painter; painter and canvas. Commissioning live models facilitates the creative process by guiding line, form, and volume.  It is important to remain vigilant so as to avoid producing flat, naturalistic work.  Thus, understanding the difference between the physicality of form and a more profound, metaphysical side is essential.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Virtuositic Playing, 2008. Oil on canvas, 80 cm x 60 cm.

The same holds true for landscapes.  The immediate perception of colors, interpretation, and subsequent translation of experiences is more powerful during the plein-air painting process. Sheludyakov attempts to expedite the entire process in order to retain a certain freshness and spontaneity. For acrylic works, three to four days is sufficient.  However, oil paintings require more finesse, averaging approximately ten days.

Jewel Goode. Oleg Sheludyakov, French Evening, 2015
Oleg Sheludyakov, French Evening, 2015

Once the paintings are finished, Sheludyakov lovingly releases them to the public with an open heart. When asked to define an exceptional painting, in general, the artist confidently stated that a true chef-d’oeuvre is the antithesis of indifference because it evokes admiration and encourages reflection.  This type of work reaches deep emotional depths of the spectator and ultimately has the power to inspire others.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Stars and Lights of Nice, 2013. Oil on canvas, 60 cm x 92 cm

I recently obtained my third Master of Arts degree in Global Communications from the American University of Paris, and I have conducted extensive doctoral research about the effects of globalization on the Opéra national de Paris, so I was curious as to how the current international climate has personally affected Sheludyakov. It is evident that the globalized economy has transformed the art market, artists, and artistic production.

The notion of evolution is a salient topic which artists cannot ignore.  Remaining in an isolated sphere is no longer a viable option or lucrative alternative. Sheludyakov is clearly aware of this paradigm shift in contemporary society and adopts a philosophical approach.  Since creativity does not exist in a vacuum, artistic evolution is directly linked to inevitable transformation, active exploration, and ultimate change defined within the context of relevant sociocultural parameters – even if this approach may sometimes lead to an impasse.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Sunny South, 2011. Oil on canvas, 80 cm x 90 cm

Unfortunately, the sale of Sheludyakov paintings has suffered due to globalization and the inevitable democratization of the art market.  Throughout the 1990’s until the early 2000’s, there was a strong appreciation for Russian contemporary artists. Since then, interest in Russian art has decreased significantly.  In addition, the internet is saturated with artists of every genre, rendering it difficult to clearly differentiate one’s brand.  Fortunately, Sheludyakov has maintained a close circle of faithful collectors and gallerists over the years.  This is partially due to a resistance to short-term trends, increased online visibility that has been carefully nurtured, and complete confidence in the creative process.

Oleg Sheludyakov. Yellow Butterfly’s Effect, 2013. Oil on linen, 46 cm x 55 cm

 

Author: Jewel K. Goode.  Global Communications Specialist, Writer,  Art Curator, and Photographer

Contact Oleg Sheludyakov or purchase his artwork by visiting his website.

Less is More: The Evolution of my Aesthetic Preferences

Less is More: The Evolution of my Aesthetic Preferences

Universally accepted socio-cultural codes are inherently cross-generational.  They have always existed, whether firmly stated, gently whispered, or clearly implied.  Interest in the complex interrelationship between fashion, art, and society began very early and continue to evolve.  Although I am from southern California, I have spent a significant amount of time living abroad learning how to adapt – and not assimilate – my own preferences to those of the culture that embraces me.

Audrey Hepburn, Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1961). Image Credit: Fashion Gone Rogue

I am always eager to find a way to merge my interests into a cohesive, external shell that most accurately reflects my authentic self.  The iconic Coco Chanel and Audrey Hepburn have always provided inspiration for me with their natural grace and understated elegance.  I tend to agree with the renowned architect, Mies van der Rohe: “Less is More”.

Karl Lagerfeld, Sketch for Chanel.

Over the years, I have become more flexible and tastes have been gently transformed without sacrificing my fundamental values.   Having lived in a multitude of international cities including Paris, Florence, Berlin, Toronto, and London, I have been fully immersed in other societies, appreciating the subtle nuances of cultural norms, linguistic codes, and acceptable attire while still protecting my core sensibilities.  Therefore, I am always eager to find a way to merge those interests into a cohesive, external shell that most accurately reflects my authentic self.

Hermès, F/W 2014/2015. Image Credit: vogue.fr

When I am at home in southern California, I am encapsulated in a sunny world of cool, ocean breezes and beautiful, sandy beaches.  Therefore, I tend to adopt a minimalistic approach.  It is only appropriate that I slip into an airy sundress and sandals.  However, working at the Opéra national de Paris – Palais Garnier, and now at Rémy Cointreau on Haussmann Boulevard in Paris, requires a more conservative approach with elements of controlled creativity.

Karl Lagerfeld, Chanel Haute Couture Spring 2017. Image Credit: vogue.fr

 

Chanel Haute Couture Spring 2017. Image Credit: vogue.fr

Although I was raised in a family with strong ties to the Armed Forces, I ultimately attended a Quaker boarding school.  The complex interrelationship between the individual, socially acceptable dress codes, and attitude were rather dramatic, to say the very least.  At home, we fervently adhered to the old adage, “Cleanliness is next to godliness,” in all aspects of life.  There was no higher compliment than to be referred to as someone who was “neat and tidy”. Even now, I feel most comfortable in clothes that are easy to wear with simple, clean lines and monochromatic colors.

Hermès Paris Fashion Week SS 17. Image Credit: vogue.fr
Hermès Paris Fashion Week SS 17. Image Credit: vogue.fr

My adopted Quaker environment was diametrically opposed to strict military standards, both in lifestyle and ideology.  Fashion was relatively non-existent, but individual expression, creativity, and curiosity were highly laudable traits.  At first, I was uncertain about the unabashed enthusiasm that erupted over the mixing of fabrics, textures, colors, and proportions.  I found myself questioning the taste and sanity of classmates and professors who seemed to have reached a soothing state of nirvana in their wrinkled trousers, colorful scarves, and comfortable Birkenstocks.

Karl Lagerfeld’s Haute Couture Spring Collection held at the Grand Palais Paris is January 2017 is an accurate reflection of my aesthetic preferences with the feminine silhouettes and cinched-in waists. The luxurious fabrics and embellishments elevate the ensembles. Yet, there is something quite conservative and inherently minimalistic about the heritage collection.

Karl Lagerfeld. Chanel Haute Couture, Spring 2017. Image Credit: vogue.fr

 

Karl Lagerfeld. Chanel Haute Couture, Spring 2017. Image Credit: vogue.fr

Trends have never peaked my curiosity, but the timelessness and enduring traits of an exceptional product never cease to inspire me.  It has been a natural progression that has attracted me to internationally renowned French heritage brands which reflect discreet, understated elegance.  Hermès, Louis Vuitton, and Chanel are clear examples of brands which value quality, excellence, and craftsmanship while providing effortless style.

Karl Lagerfeld. Chanel Haute Couture, Spring 2017. Image Credit: vogue.fr

 

Paris, France: Rémy Cointreau

Paris, France: Rémy Cointreau

Rémy Martin XO Dégustation – Opulence Revealed

Rémy Cointreau. Paris, France. Rémy Martin XO – Opulence Revealed. Photo by Jewel Goode, 2017. All Rights Reserved.

 

Rémy Cointreau. Paris, France. Rémy Martin XO – Opulence Revealed. Photo by Jewel Goode, 2017. All Rights Reserved.

Karl Lagerfeld and the Opéra national de Paris: A multi-sensorial, artistic collaboration

Karl Lagerfeld and the Opéra national de Paris: A multi-sensorial, artistic collaboration

jewel-goode-opera-balanchine-pg-lagerfeld-and-dancers
Photo by Jewel K. Goode, 2016. Karl Lagerfeld Backstage at the Opéra Bastille for George Balanchine’s Brahms-Schönberg Quartet. All Rights Reserved.

The haute couture ballet costumes and set design for George Balanchine’s Brahms-Schönberg Quartet were created by Karl Lagerfeld for the Opéra national de Paris.  Renowned dancers Bart Cook and Maria Calegari served as the choreographers, and I acted as the cultural liaison and assistant to choreographers, artists, and directors.  The luxurious costumes reflect an innovative, collaborative approach to fashion in the rapidly evolving globalized community.  Moreover, they fully activate the five senses while providing elements of fantasy of a bygone era.  For, “There will never be a world without fantasy, which expresses the unconscious unfulfilled” (S. Kaiser, 1997).

jewel-goode-opera-national-de-paris-balanchine-premiere-with-bart-cook-and-maria-calegari
Photo by Jewel K. Goode.  Jewel K. Goode with choreographers of George Balanchine’s “Brahms-Schönberg Quartet”, Bart Cook and Maria Calegari.  All Rights Reserved.

This is an essential point, since art, fashion, and culture inhabit the same multi-sensorial landscape.  They represent a constantly evolving visual language which must be effectively transmitted to spectators. Inaugurated in 1875, the OnP formerly represented an elitist Parisian society.  The institution was historically linked to utopian images of wealth, power, prestige, and elegance. Therefore, Lagerfeld’s costume designs for each of Balanchine’s four acts needed to the encapsulate the Zeitgeit of the OnP.  That essence was effectively transmitted through a consistent visual theme involving textures, costume accessories, and classical ballet silhouettes.  A muted color palette of white, pale pink, and crème-orange created a bold visual juxtaposition with the monochromatic interjection of black and white details and piping.  Traditionally feminine elements and curvilinear shapes were visible with velvet headpieces and armbands, satin ribbons, tulle/chiffon tutus, and bejeweled caps.  These contrasted the straight lines and geometrical shapes traditionally considered masculine.

Lagerfeld conceptualized various sketches which were inspired by the Vienna Secession, an artistic movement established in 1897. Costumes were skillfully constructed in the OnP couture atelier according to Lagerfeld’s initial artistic intentions, but still allowed for subsequent modifications and adjustments of material, fabric, and accessories.  Thus, costumes were individually adapted to each ballet dancer, taking into consideration rigorous choreographic maneuvers.  They also accounted for other variables including lighting, sound, and stage conditions.  This resulted in the creation of regal, yet fashionable costumes which contributed to the multi-sensorial landscape while integrating an advanced degree of technological innovation and functionality.

Lagerfeld’s extensive research resulted in the creation of tailored men’s black and white suede waistcoats, as well as folklore-inspired, embroidered headdresses.  The women’s costumes included black and white bodices with princess seams in satin and velvet attached to voluminous tutus constructed of pink, orange, and white tulle/chiffon.  Use of luxurious fabrics and detailed embroidery created a sophisticated, glamorous environment of classic, understated elegance.  It also alluded to a previous era where clothing was symbolic of an individual’s social status and morality – whether actual or contrived.  Lagerfeld’s set design purposefully evoked an ancient palace adorned with heavy, gray, floor-length drapery.  This contrasted the color palette and texture of the costumes.  Such an atmosphere was meant to reference the waning splendor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Artistic collaborations between the French heritage institution and fashion have steadily increased in the globalized economy.   The OnP has hosted a variety of cultural events and fashion shows such as Stella McCartney and Dries van Noten.  Moreover, the OnP has collaborated with renowned fashion designers including Christian Lacroix for George Balanchine’s Le Palais de cristal, and Yves Saint-Laurent for Roland Petit’s Notre-Dame de Paris.  Recently, it has begun collaborative efforts with contemporary, avant-garde fashion designers such as Iris van Herpen for Benjamin Millepied’s Clear, Loud, Bright, Forward, Alessandro Sartori for Millepied’s La nuit s’achève, and Mary Katranzou for Justin Peck’s Entre chien et loup.

Author: Jewel K. Goode 

Postcards: Paris, France

Paris, France: Opéra national de Paris, Palais Garnier

Jewel Goode Paris Palais Garnier.JPG
Opéra national de Paris, Palais Garnier. Photo by Jewel K. Goode, 2016. All rights reserved.

 

Jewel Goode Paris Palais Garnier 2
Opéra national de Paris, Palais Garnier. La Générale performance for Maguy Marin: “Les Applaudissements ne se mangent pas”. Photo by Jewel K. Goode, 2016. All rights reserved.

 

 

Paris Reflections: Fall Edition N.6., Maison Schiaparelli: A History and Revival

Paris Reflections: Fall Edition N.6., Maison Schiaparelli: A History and Revival. Hôtel Fontpertuis. 21, Place Vendôme

Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com
Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com

 

Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com
Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com

 

Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com
Maison Schiaparelli Fall/Winter 2015. Photo © Kim Weston Arnold/ Indigitalimages.com

 

Maison Schiaparelli: A History and Revival 

Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973) was born into an aristocratic and intellectual family at the Palazzo Corsini in Rome, Italy. The Italian-born French couturière is best known for the quality and originality of her work infused with vibrant colors, intricate embroidery, architectural elements, bold prints, and pronounced textures. Yves Saint Laurent once commented on Schiaparelli’s profound success as an Italian in Paris: “Elle a gifflé Paris, elle l’a ensorcelé, et en retour Paris est tombé amoureux d’elle” (Baxter-Wright, p. 27). She brought an Italian sensibility to French haute-couture with cleverness, whimsy, femininity, and expertise. In addition, artistic collaboration with others allowed Schiaparelli to skillfully implement innovative techniques, materials, and various genres into her idiosyncratic designs.

Schiaparelli was oftentimes regarded as an artist as much as a designer. Gabrielle (Coco) Chanel’s statement reflects this sense of artistry, “… cette artiste italienne qui fait des vêtements (Baxter-Wright, p. 71). Schiaparelli soon caught the attention of renowned fashion design Paul Poiret, as well as Gabrielle Picabia, wife of Dadaist painter Francis Picabia. Her early work produced at the atelier in rue de l’Université consisted of geometrical designs and was considerably more conservative than later years. By 1927, Schiaparelli was catapulted to success with the creation of a hand-knit sweater with a black and white trompe l’oeil motif. It was immediately deemed an “artistic masterpiece” by Vogue and launched her career. This eventually led to the opening of her atelier on 4, rue de la Paix, “Schiaparelli – Pour le Sport” with designs seamlessly blending haute-couture and sportswear.

Schiaparelli’s spirit of entrepreneurialship and business acumen were apparent very early, as she surrounded herself with creative talents including: Meret Oppenheimer, Alberto Giacometti, Lesage, Jean Schlumberger, Lina Baretti, Jean-Michel Frank, Roger Vivier, and Marcel Vertès, among many others. Schiaparelli was the first woman to be featured on the cover of Time magazine in 1934. This marked the beginning of Schiaparelli’s experimentation with jewelry design, various motifs, aerodynamic cuts, intricate embroidery, bold colors, and innovative materials such as Swarowsky crystals, rhodophane, and crushed rayon crepe. Rhodophane is a transparent and fragile material which appears like glass, while crushed rayon crepe resembles tree bark. Her fragrance “S” was launched in 1928. Soon thereafter, a collection of three perfumes, Souci, Salut, and Schiap, was created in 1934. Schiaparelli’s designs attracted strong, independent women, as well as famous customers such as Katherine Hepburn, Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo, Lauren Bacall, Vivien Leigh, and Wallis Simpson, the future Duchess of Windsor. Her designs were lauded for celebrating, not neglecting, the feminine form with nipped-in tops, bold lines, and skirts to flatter the real woman. Schiaparelli once commented, “Il ne faut pas adapter le vêtement au corps, mais faire en sorte que le corps s’adapte au vêtement” (Baxter-Wright, p. 89). In 1932, the Couture House was known as “Schiaparelli – Pour le Sport, Pour le Ville, Pour le Soir”, and later moved into its current location Hôtel de Fontpertuis at 21 place Vendôme in 1935.

Schiaparelli was continually inspired by illustrations, architecture, fantasy, the Italian Commedia dell’Arte, and the theatricality of Surrealism. During this period, she often collaborated with artists. She and Salvador Dalì created several controversial pieces, including “Squelette” (Skeleton Dress, 1938), and “Homard” (Lobster Dress, 1937), a recurrent theme in Dalì’s work which often had sexual connotations. It features a large, blood-red lobster motif on a simple, white dress, strategically located between the thighs. “Larmes” (Tears Dress, 1938) is part of the “Cirque” collection inspired by Dalì’s “Trois jeunes femmes surréalistes tenant dans leurs bras les peaux d’un orchestra” (1936). Designed just before the outbreak of World War II, the silk crêpe dress was created as a “mourning dress”, accompanied by a long veil and tears in a trompe l’oeil motif. Schiaparelli states, “Quand les temps sont difficile, la mode est toujours outrancières” (Baxter-Wright, p. 79). Other notable collaborations were with Jean Cocteau, whose drawings were featured on many of her designs, René Magritte (for the fragrance bottle inspired by his “Ceci n’est pas une pipe” painting), and Man Ray throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s.

Schiaparelli was able to skillfully translate the utopian, dreamlike state of Surrealist imagery into her innovative designs, and was the first to give her collections a theme. Some of the clothes from this period included, “Stop, Look, and Listen” (1935), “Paris in 1937” (1937), and “Music” (1937). “Zodiac”, “Pagan”, and “Circus” were all created in 1938, and “Commedia dell’Arte” was created shortly thereafter (1939). Schiaparelli also served as costume designer for various Hollywood films including “Every Day’s a Holiday” (1937) and “Moulin Rouge” (1952). Much of her success was due to an ability to conceptualize and execute a broad range of items including bathing suits, sportswear such as the jupe-culotte, evening gowns, wrap dresses, hats, jewelry, and perfume.

Perhaps most significant was the creation of her Shocking perfume and “shocking pink” trademark color in 1937. Commenting on the color, Schiaparelli once stated: “Une couleur qui donne la vie, la couleur de toute la lumière du monde, de tous les oiseaux et de tous les poisons du monde réunis, une couleur de la Chine de du Pérou, mais pas de l’Occident » Baxter-Wright, p. 48). The perfume bottle was designed by Leonor Fini, and represented a dressmaker mannequin referencing the physique of Mae West decorated with porcelain flowers and a velvet measuring tape. The Maison Schiaparelli proved to be an international success, and Elsa became the first European to receive the Nieman Marcus Award for services to fashion in 1940. However, this marked a period of decline for the House of Schiaparelli, and it was forced to close in 1954, the same year her autobiography, Shocking Life, was released.

Nearly fifty years later, the Schiaparelli archives and rights were acquired by Diego della Valle in 2006. Subsequently, the Maison Schiaparelli reopened at stately Hôtel Fontpertuis on 21, place Vendôme in 2012. As a tribute to the original founder, Christian Lacroix designed an haute-couture collection one year later. Soon thereafter, Farida Khelfa was appointed Ambassador, and Marco Zanini was appointed creative director in 2013. In January 2014, the Maison Schiaparelli successfully presented its first haute-couture show at Hôtel Fontpertuis since its 1954 closing. By re-contextualizing and reconfiguring particular elements, Zanini was able to capture the essence of Maison Schiaparelli – transforming it into a contemporary, yet timeless, brand with Italian-Parisian sensibilities. The Théâtre d’Elsa references 1930’s Parisian theatres. It is a chic, cosmopolitan realm encapsulated in elegance, splendor, and glory.

Designs consisting of bold, masculine silhouettes, tweeds, and tartans draped over full, opulent gowns made of shimmering rhodophane creates a sense of restrained elegance. However, there is also a strategic use of vibrant, saturated colors, and well as the trademark “shocking pink”. Flowing, luxurious fabrics, and the appearance of hand-painted prints on silk chiffon and organdy point to the complexity and detail of the couturière method. These pieces are carefully juxtaposed with structured capes with strong shoulders, bold, architectural shapes, and intricate embroidery reminiscent of Spanish boleros. Complex details and embroidery appearing on the back add another dimension to the idiosyncratic creations. Sparkling, oversized brooches consisting of pierced hearts, irises, suns, stars, padlocks, and the ES initials illuminate each colorful ensemble. The totality of the Fall/Winter 2015-2016 collection reflects a masterful re-interpretation and re-contextualization of Elsa Schiaparelli’s twentieth century designs by Marco Zanini.

Author: Jewel K. Goode, Independent Curator, Photographer, and Educator

contact: jewelkismet@gmail.com

Sources:

Bater-Wright, Anne. Schiaparelli. Groupe Eyrolles, Paris. 2012.

Schiaparelli: Paris website. N.d. 2 November 2015.

 

Paris Reflections: Fall Edition N.5, Musée du Luxembourg Exhibition, “Fragonard amoreux: Galant et libertin”

Paris Reflections: Fall Editions N.5, Musée du Luxembourg Exhibition.  “Fragonard amoureux: Galant et libertin”

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Le Colin-Maillard (1754). Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Le Colin-Maillard (1754). Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Le Verrou (1775). Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Le Verrou (1775). Photo © Jewel K. Goode, 2015. All Rights Reserved.

The exhibition Fragonard amoureux: Galant et libertin (Fragonard in Love: Suitor and Libertine) is currently located at the Musée du Luxembourg from September 16, 2015 until January 24, 2016. Born in Grasse, Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806), or « Frago », is thought to be one of the most influential painters of the 18th century, especially during the years preceding the French Revolution. From 1748-1752 Fragonard began his training as a painter with Jean-Baptiste Chardin and François Boucher. Soon thereafter, he was the recipient of the Grand Prix award in 1752, which subsequently led to his acceptance into the French Royal Academy of Painting in 1765. A series of important paintings were commissioned over the course of his lifetime including L’Aurore triumphant de la Nuit (1755), Le Verrou (1775), Le Jeu de la main chaude (1775), and Renaud entre dans la forêt (1761). The Enlightenment encouraged variations on the romantic genre, directly translated into painting or other artistic forms. Although Fragonard unabashedly indulged in the themes of romance and love, he also painted a variety of subjects including landscapes, genres, historical, grand interiors, and portraits.

A direct vestige of the Grand Siècle, the concept of galenterie was representative of French national identity in the 18th century, evoking utopian pastoral scenes. L’amour galant encouraged tenderness, sincerity, mutual respect, and loyalty. As a student of François Boucher (1703-1770), Fragonard was directly influenced by the former’s invention of an iconography that was a combination of love, romance, and pastoral gallantry. The ability to appropriately express emotions and sensuality was a major concern of artistic, literary, and philosophical circles. François Boucher’s Les Charmes de la vie champêtre (1735-1740), also visible at the exhibition, was inspired by Hubert-François Gravelot’s illustrations for the literary work, L’Astrée (1733) written by Honoré d’Urfé (1567 – 1625).

The exhibition opens with the theme of Le berger galant (The Gallant Shepherd) which includes Le Colin-Maillard (1754-1756). It was Fragonard’s first foray into pastoral paintings, and it clearly borrowed essential formal elements from Boucher including clothing, disposition, lighting, and color palette. Le Colin-Maillard (Blind Man’s Bluff) evokes a lush, flowering pastoral scene framed by a soft blue sky. It is a flirtatious, sensual scene in which a young shepherdess in fashionable, rustic attire playfully peeks through the bandage covering her eyes, presumably placed there by her lover. He has light-brown curly hair, and is clothed in a yellowish-green overcoat with pink shirt. The young boy is in ¾ view, positioned slightly behind the shepherdess’s right shoulder, and is attempting to tickle her with a string.

The elegant shepherdess is the dominant, central figure, positioned in a slight contrapposto which animates the entire scene with movement. The voluminous fabric of her pink, satin dress is illuminated by a soft, gentle light originating from the upper left corner of the painting. A yellowish, straw hat tipped in pink sits atop waves of undulating, blond hair. White, billowing, cotton sleeves reaching her elbows mirror the whiteness of the eye bandage, as well as undergarments covering her bosom. The pink fabric contrasts the grayish-blue silk undergarment which extends to her ankles. This blue is mirrored in the ribbons of the shepherdess’s shoelaces, the delicate bunch of wildflowers tucked into her bosom, and the wispy ribbon which adorns her neck.

Fragonard utilizes a soft color palette including pink, blue, white, green, and yellow to evoke an erotically-charged, pastoral environment popular amongst the 18th century aristocracy. Other elements include the appearance of two, playful putti which serve as artistic inspiration. One is positioned on his back at the shepherdess’s feet, engaging in a game of stick and string with the blindfolded girl, while the other is positioned in the far left of the painting.  He is partially hidden by the lush, sprawling foliage which covers deteriorating architectural elements prominently located in the foreground (stairs, vase, and base), as well as the background.

Clever groupings of figures, a skillful implementation of the chiaroscuro technique, and the decay of solid, structural features provide strong visible juxtapositions between two distinct realms: a contrived, neoclassical construction, and a utopian pastoral, Arcadia. The former being solid, weighted, and rigid; the latter being light, voluminous, and lush. This concept is also evident with Fragonard’s selection of materials, soft color palette, and positioning of roughly-textured wooden objects in the foreground (lower right-hand side of the painting). They are also located immediately to the left of the shepherd and shepherdess. A strong diagonal is formed across the painting which is created by the light source emanating from the upper left corner. Vertical and horizontal divisions are distinct throughout the pastoral scene. Strong, architectural lines of the stairs, background stone structure, pedestals, and obliques contrast the lushness provided by sprawling wildflowers, trees, ivy, and billowing fabric adorning the two central figures and playful putti.

The choice of paintings, engravings, and drawings in the Musée du Luxembourg’s current exhibition are carefully positioned according to specific themes. These mirror the trajectory of Fragonard’s artistic production from the beginning of his career until his death in Paris on August 22, 1806. The first of these divisions is Le berger galant (The Gallant Shepherd). It is the opening theme of the current exhibition. Following is Les amours des dieux (The Loves of the Gods), which reveals mythological tales of Antiquity. Said to have been executed in a superfluous, licentious style of painting, this « libertinage » theme was a favorite topic amongst the élite. Critiques argued that it was a theme disguised as gallantry, and it was, in fact, blatantly hedonistic. This created a complete fragmentation and detachment from its supposedly romantic sentiment.

Next, Éros rustique et populaire (Rustic and Popular Eros), was a theme which inspired Fragonard after his first trip to Rome in 1756. This encouraged two distinct styles. The first referenced the popular literary genre poissard. Artistic production pointed to carnal urges and pictorial references of rustic scenes of 17th century Flemish painters such as Rubens (1577-1640). The second style referenced Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s (1712-1778) love of nature.  Other themes worth exploring in the exhibition include: Fragonard illustrateur de contes libertins (Fragonard, Illustrator of Libertine Tales), Pierre-Antoine Baudouin, un maître en libertinage (Pierre-Antoine Baudouin, A Liberinist Master), Fragonard et l’imagerie licencieuse (Fragonard and Licentious Imagery), La lecture dangereuse (Dangerous Reading), Le Renouveau de la fête galante (The Revival of the Fête Galante), L’amour moralisé (Love Moralized), La passion héroïque (Heroic Passion), and Les allégories amoureuses (Romantic Allegory).

Author: Jewel K. Goode, Independent Curator, Photographer, and Educator

contact: jewelkismet@gmail.com

Sources

Faroult, Guillaume. Album de l’exposition du Musée du Luxembourg. Fragonard amoureux: Galant et libertin. Réunion des musées nationaux – Grand Palais, 2015.