Postcards: Honolulu, Hawaii
The expansive Kushan territories (1st – 4th centuries AD), encompassed a vast range of artistic cultures, unified under one administration. These cultures can be divided into four broad regions: 1. Bactria, 2. Mathura (India), 3. Arachosia and Nagarahara, and 4. Ancient Gandhara. Both Arachosia and Nagarahara, as well as Ancient Gandhara, are situated in areas which are now known asmodern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Despite regional variations, artistic production reflected the legacy of a common cultural heritage of the Silk Roads. Gandhara served as a major crossroads from which Kushan art was disseminated to Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Indian towns such as Mathura, Devnamori, and Amaravati. In addition, excavations in Begram, Pushkalavati, Taxila, Mathura, and Surkh Kotal revealed that some Gandhara art displays elements that are characteristic of the Hellenistic period. Due to external influences, Kushan art was constantly evolving. It absorbed earlier Graeco-Bactrian traditions, and was also receptive to Western trends through international trade and commerce. However, it always retained its individuality, reflecting the sociocultural aspirations of its people, as well as the importance of local craftsmanship. Artistic Kushan jewelry design reflects a variety of styles, techniques, and materials. While the Taxila collection is predominately Graeco-Roman in character, Gandhara jewelry generally reflects a range of classical Iranian, Sarmatian, and Indian savoir-faire typical of Gandhara art. It also displays a mastery of goldsmith techniques borrowed from Western Asia. Gems, precious and semi-precious stones, shell, bone, ivory, glass objects, and beads were all used in jewelry design. Examples include necklaces, bracelets, anklets, hairpins, and finger rings, sometimes with encrusted gems and impressions. Decorative items such as brooches, turban pins, and miniature gold figures of Cupid, Psyche, animals, birds, and flowers can be found in the Taxila collection. Moreover, elaborate ornamentation was a reflection of elevated social status. Bodhisattvas, nobility, and deities are always depicted wearing jewelry. Conversely, those of lower social status wore replicas, or none at all. Kushan art, artifacts, jewelry, and craftsmanship are a direct reflection of those who were living within its expansive territories. Economic prosperity and peace remained the basis for the popularity and development of this art along the Silk Roads. These objects are visible remnants of the global, transnational fluidity of culturally embedded concepts that are passed down through generations. They also reveal the subtle intricacies of pluralistic identities, intercultural dialogue, and communicative exchange amongst diverse populations.
image © Ashwin. Sources provided upon request
Oscar Lawalata Culture, the Indonesian Batik Foundation (YBI), and Rumah Pesona Kain jointly curated the exhibition entitled, “Batik for the World”, at the UNESCO HQ in Paris from 6-12 June 2018. A collection of 100 batik cloths were transported from various parts of Indonesia and exhibited on-site. Through colorful displays and discussions, the weeklong event offered a platform that increased awareness and appreciation of the cultural heritage of Indonesian batik on the local and international levels. Thus, its history, embedded cultural values, craftsmanship, and development along the maritime Silk Roads were highlighted. In addition, visitors could partake in informal workshops, where they were able to witness the batik-making process involving “malam” (hot, liquid wax), “canting” (copper wax pen with a bamboo handle), “wajan” (liquid wax receptacle), and other tools used by skilled artisans who help to promote its safeguarding. Moreover, the exhibition showcased batik textile creations by contemporary designers Oscar Lawalata, Edward Hutabarat and Denny Wirawan during a fashion show that celebrated the diversity of Indonesian regions, batik processing methods, natural coloring, embroidery, and fabrics.
Indonesian batik was added to UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list in 2009, and has been internationally recognized as an historical fabric of human civilization. It is thought to be over 1000 years old, with historical evidence pointing to its use in parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the actual origins of batik are unknown, it is believed to have been transported to Asia by way of the Indian subcontinent. “Batik” is derived from an Indonesian-malay word, which is now often used as a generic term referring to the process of dyeing fabric. The process is traditionally performed on cotton and silk using a resist technique. This includes covering areas of cloth with a dye-resistant substance in order to prevent color absorption. Those areas not covered are able to absorb deep hues. Thus, the fabric is both durable and fade-resistant. Other batik methods also exist, such as the splash method, the screen printing process, and the hand-painting methods.
Batik is considered to have reached the height of its artistic expression in Java during the 19th century. Recognizable motifs, patterns, and colors often designated family, social status, and geographic origin. Traditional colors for Central Javanese batik were made from natural ingredients, and consisted primarily of blue, brown, beige, and black. Some designs include Kawung, or intersecting circles, Ceplok, geometric designs, Parang, or “knife pattern”, and Prada cloth, a batik decorated with gold leaf or gold dust. These prints were inspired by Japanese, Indian, Chinese, and Dutch influence, which resulted in the richness of the color and motifs. The art of batik later spread to the rest of the Indonesian archipelago, and then to the Malay Peninsula. Due to its popularity, more production centers were subsequently created. Although most batik fabric is now decorated and tailored by machine, there is still a desire for traditional textiles that are of the highest quality and hand-made. Today, skilled artisans, educational programs like those initiated in 2005 by the Batik Museum in Pekalongan City, Indonesia, as well as similar exhibitions, continue to transmit batik cultural heritage, which helps preserve its maritime Silk Roads legacy.
image © Evans Winanda Wirg
sources provided upon request