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Classical Arabic poetry was directly influenced by the historical events of its time. As with other literature from regions belonging to the Silk Roads, it is deeply rooted in spatial and temporal realities. Due to sparse documentation and fragmentary evidence of literary works, concrete evidence about the early developmental stages is lacking. Nonetheless, it is known that the literary heritage of the classical period included numerous collections of poetry, maxims and proverbs known as amthal, narrative genre, and rhetorical prose. This literature can be divided into two demarcated phases. The first phase dates from its origins to 660 CE, and includes what authors have referred to as Jahiliyya, or the period before Islam. The second phase dates from 660-750 CE.
Literary material attributed to the first phase constituted a variety of legends involving fools, cowards, crafty individuals, and accounts of mythical creatures. These were orally transmitted by poets who enjoyed immense public prestige due to their linguistic prowess. Two elaborate forms were implemented that later acquired considerable prestige, eventually being recognized as classic structures of Arabic poetry: the marthiya, strictly reserved for funeral elegies, and qasida (the ode), which served as the framework for all thematic developments due to its unity of style and tone. Three generations of poets applied a diversity of these elements in their art. Notable pioneers of the first classical phase include Imru’ al-Qais bin Hujr al-Kindi,oftentimes considered the father of Arabic poetry, al-Muhalhil Adi ibn Rabia’, Tarafah ibn al-ʿAbd, and Ka‘b ibn Zuhayr. These poets succeeded in imprinting individual sensibilities on poetic discourse that was viewed as an aesthetic, literary model for successive generations.
During the second phase of classical Arabic poetry, the marthiya and the qasida both continued to evolve, thus reflecting imminent societal concerns. These included the development of Islam, as well as the cultural symbiosis produced by its rapid expansion. Therefore, poetic expression expanded in directions which encouraged exploration of the self, political commitment, and deeper meditation. As a result, poetic themes transformed, producing three new genres: the love poem (ghazal), the political poem (al-Shi’r al-siyasi), and the ascetic poem (zuhdiyya). Moreover, the development of Arabic poetry at the end of the 7th century and beginning of the 8th century was accompanied by a significant renewal of literary prose. This was reflected in an intense diversification of the art of rhetoric, which reflected the eloquence of oratory discourse in a variety of themes. It was also apparent in the creation of a new genre, the epistle, written in a fluid direct style that used picturesque expressions and strongly accented rhythms.
Finally, this developmental transformation was evident in the acclimatization of the fable, such as Kalila wa-Dimna, a collection of Indian fables. First written in Sanskit, with origins possibly dating to 4th century, it was subsequently translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa in the 8th century. Translated into over fifty languages, it is still read in contemporary society. Due to the reciprocity of these exchanges, these literary forms also transferred to other languages and cultures, such as Persian and Turkish. Through the originality of their content and elegance of style, these works inaugurated a new literary period that embodied the creative contributions from a diversity of cultures.
image © Zhenia Perutsk
sources provided upon request
Postcards: Paris, France
Bernard Arnault, President and CEO of luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, collaborated with Canadian-American architect, Frank Gehry, to create a new museum in the Jardin d’Acclimation. Extensive and costly renovations were estimated to be approximately 158 million Euros. The French cultural center has been dedicated to artisanal crafts and traditions, and is located in the Bois de Boulogne in the former Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires (MATP), an ethnographic museum which has been classified as an historical site. Since the MATP is classified as an historic site, it cannot be sold. The city of Paris struggled to find a new tenant willing to undertake massive renovations of the defunct building. Therefore, Arnault has agreed to a 50-year lease at 150,000 Euros per year in order to create a new museum, which is housed in a building adhering to sustainable development codes.
The building is located just 300 meters from Arnault’s Fondation Louis Vuitton. Inaugurated in 2014, it was also designed by Gehry. By transforming the MATP into a lucrative asset, Arnault has increased visibility of the Fondation Louis Vuitton. For example, welcomed more than 1,200,000 visitors to its Chtchouckine collection. It has also strengthened awareness for the LVMH brand universe, further highlighting the importance of artisanal work and exceptional craftsmanship inherent to the brand’s DNA. Over a three year period, the MATP will be subsequently renamed La Maison LVMH / Arts – Talents – Patrimoine. The 13,600 square-meters of usable space includes exhibition rooms, gallery spaces, an artisanal workshop welcoming resident artists, an event hall, and a rooftop restaurant.
The collaborative efforts between Arnault and the city of Paris could be viewed as a strategic maneuver. Geographical expansion of the mogul’s empire would not be farfetched, especially after its aggressive and failed attempts to acquire Hermès in 2010. Designed by architect Jean Dubuisson (1914-2011) in collaboration with Michel Jausserand and Olivier Vaudou, Georges-Henri Rivière’s MATP officially closed its doors to the public in 2005, and its 250,000 art objects were transferred to the Musée des civilizations de l’Europe et de la Méditéranné (MuCEM) in Marseille. Since its closing, the MATP has fallen into a state of disrepair due to conflicts with the city of Paris and the Ministry of Culture. The city of Paris hopes to decrease its debt burden with these recent collaborative efforts between Arnault and Gehry.
The Medina mosque, built in the 7th century by the Prophet Mohammed, is considered to be the first educational institution of the Muslim world. During this era, mosques served as the primary environments for learning. However, as societies evolved, learning circles expanded to include royal settings, as well as informal gatherings in market places. By the Abbasid period (750 – 13th century), religious education assumed a certain significance. It was not uncommon for some educators to specialize in the teachings of the Qur’an, theology, and law, while the emphasis for others was on history, the Arabic language, and literature.
Learning circles and study groups gradually increased in number, serving as the foundation of what were to become “madrasas”, or colleges, intended for adults who had completed their primary education in mosques or private schools. During the 10th century, madrasas emerged as independent institutions, distinct from mosques, which helped to create a new type of educational system. As a result, these madrasas became centers for religious and secular learning, as well as places where officials were educated according to Muslim orthodoxy. Documentary evidence and architectural remnants trace the origin of these madrasas to Khurasan and Transoxania in the 10th century, as well as in the region now known as northern Iran.
Educational stratification was the direct result of the emergence of these madrasas. They provided higher religious and secular education, while elementary education was provided by the “maktabs”. It was during this era that the term “madrasa-mosque”, prevalent in the Middle Ages, was pervasive, thus reinforcing mosques’ positioning as important social, educational, and cultural centers along the Silk Roads. In addition, madrasas containing libraries appeared in Bukhara, Khwarazm, Merv, Ghazna, and Nishapur between the 10th and 12thcenturies. There was a tendency to build architectural ensembles that often included a mosque, a madrasa, a mausoleum, and public “garmabs” (baths), at major urban sites.
Despite the 13th-century Mongol invasion, which severely destabilized learning, thereby disrupting the continuity of culture and creativity, madrasas continued to be the highest form of educational institution, spreading throughout the eastern Caliphate in the 15th century and 16thcenturies. After the successful introduction of monetary reform under the Mongols, economic life soon revived throughout modern-day Iran and Transoxania. Moreover, madrasas were also established on the Indian subcontinent as early as the thirteenth century. An example is the madrasa at Gwalior, whose architectural structure resembles that of some Buddhist “viharas” (monasteries). During this period of cultural renaissance, madrasas underwent significant changes, with preference given to its organizational role as a promoter of scientific and literary thought.
Although subject to periods of growth and decline, madrasas flourished and were considered universal centers of education and intercultural exchange amongst diverse populations. They provided a range of curricula including theology, science, history, and philosophy, as well as language, literature, philology, music, and the teaching of “adab”, or polite culture. Leading scholars recognized that the secular sciences would ensure the dynamic development of society. These teachings would later be challenged in medieval times, subjected to strict Islamic theological traditions. However, during this period, madrasas in Samarkand and Herat were highly-esteemed cultural centers for science, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. An example is Samarkand’s renowned 15th century Ulugh Beg madrasa in the Registan square for scholars such as Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid and Qadizada Rumi. Furthermore, madrasas were established for the specialization of medicine in Herat. Madrasas such as these were not only centers for education and culture, but they also housed the poor, especially “mustahiqqs” (students), who received room and board during their studies, eventually sharing their knowledge and expertise with future generations. Over time, madrasas that first appeared along the Silk Roads in Bagdad continued to flourish, spreading throughout the current eastern Chinese regions and beyond.
image © Sergey Dzyuba
sources provided upon request
The expansive Kushan territories (1st – 4th centuries AD), encompassed a vast range of artistic cultures, unified under one administration. These cultures can be divided into four broad regions: 1. Bactria, 2. Mathura (India), 3. Arachosia and Nagarahara, and 4. Ancient Gandhara. Both Arachosia and Nagarahara, as well as Ancient Gandhara, are situated in areas which are now known asmodern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Despite regional variations, artistic production reflected the legacy of a common cultural heritage of the Silk Roads. Gandhara served as a major crossroads from which Kushan art was disseminated to Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Indian towns such as Mathura, Devnamori, and Amaravati. In addition, excavations in Begram, Pushkalavati, Taxila, Mathura, and Surkh Kotal revealed that some Gandhara art displays elements that are characteristic of the Hellenistic period. Due to external influences, Kushan art was constantly evolving. It absorbed earlier Graeco-Bactrian traditions, and was also receptive to Western trends through international trade and commerce. However, it always retained its individuality, reflecting the sociocultural aspirations of its people, as well as the importance of local craftsmanship. Artistic Kushan jewelry design reflects a variety of styles, techniques, and materials. While the Taxila collection is predominately Graeco-Roman in character, Gandhara jewelry generally reflects a range of classical Iranian, Sarmatian, and Indian savoir-faire typical of Gandhara art. It also displays a mastery of goldsmith techniques borrowed from Western Asia. Gems, precious and semi-precious stones, shell, bone, ivory, glass objects, and beads were all used in jewelry design. Examples include necklaces, bracelets, anklets, hairpins, and finger rings, sometimes with encrusted gems and impressions. Decorative items such as brooches, turban pins, and miniature gold figures of Cupid, Psyche, animals, birds, and flowers can be found in the Taxila collection. Moreover, elaborate ornamentation was a reflection of elevated social status. Bodhisattvas, nobility, and deities are always depicted wearing jewelry. Conversely, those of lower social status wore replicas, or none at all. Kushan art, artifacts, jewelry, and craftsmanship are a direct reflection of those who were living within its expansive territories. Economic prosperity and peace remained the basis for the popularity and development of this art along the Silk Roads. These objects are visible remnants of the global, transnational fluidity of culturally embedded concepts that are passed down through generations. They also reveal the subtle intricacies of pluralistic identities, intercultural dialogue, and communicative exchange amongst diverse populations.
image © Ashwin. Sources provided upon request
Postcards: Paris, France
Although intercultural exchanges involving tea developed between European ports, such as those in Portugal, and the Far East from 16th century onwards, tea-drinking is believed to have it origins rooted in southern Asia, dating to the Han period. It was first used as a medicinal elixir concocted from untreated green leaves. However, by the T’ang period, tea was enjoyed as a refreshing beverage, prepared from leaves that had been moistened and formed into a dense mold. Anecdotes dating to the 8th century reveal how the city of Chang-an had a flourishing number of tea shops, and many touted the health benefits of tea rather than wine.
These intercultural exchanges were the direct result of the expansive network of maritime and land routes that explorers, missionaries, physicians actively travelled across. By embarking on such journeys, they were also able to transmit elements of Western culture to the Far East, which were later transformed and reconceptualized by those regions, according to their specific aesthetic preferences. As a result of this transnational fluidity between diverse regions and populations along the Silk Roads, significant sociocultural imprints and innovative developments related to tea consumption eventually appeared in the West. Such activity permitted the free flow of ideas, goods, and concepts – the effects of which are still experienced internationally throughout contemporary society.
Dynamic exchanges and sociocultural developments concerning tea were often closely associated with everyday life, daily rituals, spirituality, and community. In some cases, consuming tea was even associated with the Taoist notions involving extraordinary psychic-spiritual and physical effects. Therefore, tea soon made an entrance into creative spheres, including poetry and literature. As a result, its popularity quickly rose throughout the Far East, with poets and artists writing about the pleasures of tea, tea customs, and traditions.
Thus, an aesthetic culture developed around tea-drinking, and achieved a considerable amount of notoriety, especially in medieval Japan in the 14th and 15th centuries. Artists such as Murata Shuko, Takeno Joo, and Sen Rikyu developed a particular approach that was characterized by the term “wabi”, or frugality. The art of the “wabi” tea ceremony, or “chado” (“the way of tea”), was borne out of a synthesis of various Japanese aesthetic and religious traditions. Over time, it continued to exert its influence on intercultural dialogue and exchanges. The art of tea was not only passed down through generations, but it was diffused to the West and across various continents. The powerful sociocultural elements embedded in tea were due to its ability to develop and solidify community bonds.
Tea was first exported from Macau through Malacca. It then passed from Manila to the Indian sub-continent before reaching the West. Cultures and regions around the world have continued to adapt the ubiquitous product according to their own societal norms. Similar to that of the Chinese culture, tea is often associated with pre-engagement rituals between a future bride and groom. The British and Dutch also incorporated the beverage into their lifestyles, where it developed connotations linked to hospitality, mutual understanding, local tradition, and community. Bento de Gois, Italian missionary, Sabatino de Ursis, and Italian cartographer, Matteo Ricci are examples of individuals during the 16th and 17th centuries who actively explored unknown regions in the Far East in order to gather knowledge, understanding, and appreciation. Their experiences abroad were later transmitted and incorporated into elements of western society and traditions.
Moreover, in the Portuguese language, “cha” is derived from the Cantonese pronunciation of the word, while “tha” and “tea” are derivatives of the Fukinese dialect. The transcendent power of tea as a beverage and renowned universal concept, is visibly translated in old teas salons on Rua Nova de El-Rei (also known as Avenida do Cinco de Outubro), as well as houses typical to Macau. These tea salons referenced Mediterranean urban structures, built around squares and cobblestoned streets, and were reminiscent of European cities. Thus, the transmission of tea to other regions of the world was possible due to the cultural significance it carried, both as a product and a concept. Positive connotations associated with tea and its benefits still exist in contemporary society, due to the active exchange of ideas, concepts, and goods along the Silk Roads, and beyond.
Image © Rain of Joy. Sources provided upon request.
The active exchange of goods, ideas, and expertise has played a significant role in the evolution of sericulture, or silk production, along the Silk Roads. This is reflected in distinctive artistic styles and craftsmanship that has continued to spread throughout various regions. The textile was so valued, it is said that by the 4th century BC, Greeks and Romans began referring to parts of the Far East as the land of “Seres”, or silk. Moreover, sericulture techniques were heavily guarded and controlled by authorities. Silk was considered a precious textile that was reserved for the aristocracy, and its use was emblematic of authority and power. The textile was preferred by royal families, and its weavers enjoyed an elevated social status comparable to that of painters or sculptors. During the Han and Tang dynasties, the absolute value of silk increased, as well as its production. Due to its versatility and popularity, silk gradually became identified with general use. Clothing made of silk is characteristically lightweight and ethereal, providing warmth in cool temperatures, and relief in hotter temperatures. Not only was it used for clothing production and decoration in the Far East, but it also assumed cultural significance in the economy as a highly sought, valuable commodity.
During silk production, silk threads are woven into textile cloth or used for embroidery work. Literary sources such as The Book of History and The Book of Rites detail aspects of sericulture. Reeling silk and spinning were household duties attributed to women, while weaving and embroidery were often conducted in workshops. In silk-producing provinces, the intergenerational aspect was apparent. Women devoted a large portion of the year to care of the silkworms, as well as to the unraveling, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and embroidery of the silk. Initially, production of both silk twine and silk cloth could be attributed solely to those in the Far East.
However, around 300 CE, the production of silk twine appeared in regions as far west as the Roman province of Syria, created during the Roman Empire (27 BC – 393 CE). It was here that the Sasanian, Shapur II (310-379 CE), established the most influential silk-weaving industry. From 224-651 CE, the Sasanians exerted significant influence in the world, and their expansion caused considerable conflict in Rome. The Sasanian region was an expansive area, recognized for its expert weavers, especially in cities such as Susa, which is located in modern Iran. Sasanian silks were then exported to both the East and West, by way of maritime and terrestrial routes. Those textiles originating in the Far East and Indian sub-continent, where silk-producing centers also appeared, inspired their designs. These designs were then incorporated into local textile patterns according to aesthetic preferences. Conversely, weavers originating from the Far East borrowed Sasanian motifs, thus transforming and recontextualizing the designs into their own culture.
Weavers from Byzantium, who considered themselves inheritors of the ancient Roman Empire, exhibited a similar trend. These Byzantine weavers generally hailed from cities such as Constantinople and Antioch. Two main types of silk weaving patterns were produced. The first was based on hunting or battle scenes, while the latter was comprised of a series of circles enveloping birds and other small animals. A Byzantine silk fragment from the tomb of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne (742-814), incorporates both of these graphic designs. The burgeoning Byzantine textile industry subsequently led to the spread of silk weaving even further west. Roger II of Sicily (1095-1154) introduced silk weavers from Constantinople to Palermo in the 12th century.
As a result of this act, the Italian silk industry was borne, and still exists. Moreover, during Pax Mongolia, silk textiles emanating from the Far East were ubiquitous throughout the region now known as Italy. This was apparent with the juxtaposition and visible translation of Italian designs with Far Eastern influences onto luxurious textiles. The resultant patterns encapsulated a greater degree of fluidity and boldness. In addition, the appearance of heraldic animals typical of the Sasanian style decreased, while flourishing arabesque ornamentation and scrawling vegetation were adapted from Far Eastern designs.
Moreover, the UNESCO World Heritage site, La Lonja de la Seda (Silk Exchange) in Valencia, Spain, built from 1482-1522, assumed a pronounced role in the evolution of sericulture. Emblematic of the power and wealth associated with the Mediterranean mercantile city in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was originally used for trading in silk, and renowned as a center of commerce. In contemporary society, the production of silk worldwide has steadily increased, especially in the Far East, despite the manufacture of synthetic textiles that are able to substitute its use. Regional variations of silk weaving exist, but the transmission of savoir-faire, knowledge, and expertise from one generation to the next allow these techniques to be disseminated throughout local and international communities along the Silk Roads, even today.
Image © bigjom.jom. Sources provided upon request.
Postcards: Paris, France
La Jolla, California
Interview with Russian Artist, Oleg Sheludyakov
I met Russian artist Oleg Sheludyakov (b. 1971) while we were both living in Berlin, Germany several years ago. His gentle, unassuming nature complemented the intensity of his gaze, revealing a highly intuitive, introspective individual whose visual language matches his intellectualism. As a friend and avid supporter, I have followed his artistic journey and continue to remain inspired by his ability to evolve. The artist currently resides in Marseille, France. His work was recently part of the Yellow Butterfly Effect exhibition in his Siberian hometown of Novosibirsk, Russia.
I asked Sheludyakov to describe when he decided to embark on this particular journey, and it would seem that he was always destined to become a professional painter. In 1977 his parents enrolled him in Kaleidoscope Fine Art School for children. He recounted with nostalgia being completely enchanted by the ambiance of the atelier with its fresh smell of paint, life-like plaster models, magical paint brushes, colorful palettes, and a profusion of art history books – a veritable Paradise on Earth. It was during these formative years that Sheludyakov decided to embark on a non-traditional professional path.
The artist’s trajectory has been susceptible to frequent oscillations and shifts in forward momentum. However, it has never diverged far from its intended course. At the age of 17, he began his studies in architecture at the Novosibirsk Engineering Institute and later graduated with a degree in Philosophy and Humanities from Novosibirsk State University in 1995. He then studied monumental painting at Novosibirsk Fine Arts and Architectural Academy and drawing at the Fine Arts Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Sheludyakov’s paintings clearly reflect his Russian sensibilities lightly dusted with French influences – a charming combination which reinforces the enigmatic nature of his work and clearly distinguishes him from other contemporary artists. Over the years, the prolific painter has capitalized on a vast artistic repertoire and solid work ethic. His work is deeply personal, reflecting profound intellectual and artistic growth.
The artist’s signature work reflects a very specific iconography and complex visual lexicon, with extensive references to his native Russia. He has masterfully implemented particular subjects, images, and applied techniques which faithfully appear as leitmotif. The nu féminin (female nudes), seaside and urban landscapes, nautical themes, music, animals and a profusion of cobalt blue throughout are primary examples.
With half of his international clientele preferring the nu féminin, Sheludyakov’s work is constantly evolving and reflects a deep appreciation of the female form. This fact intrigued me, and I was interested in the specific demographics of those who purchase his nu féminin. External variables such as age, nationality, and profession vary widely – from students to investment bankers. Sensitive to feminine beauty, Russians tend to be the most frequent buyers, followed by Germans, French, and Americans, who often purchase his most expensive works.
Subject, style, color palette, and technique afford a clear, visible translation of human emotion and themes. The vast spectrum may range from pure, gentle and harmonious to somber, expressive, and frenetic. With a large percentage of his work explicitly devoted to the creation of the nu féminin, I was curious as to origins of this admiration. His response was both philosophical and poetic. The artist believes very few things rival the ethereal beauty of this particular genre. He is careful to define beauty within the realm of abstract or conceptual theories. By respecting the boundaries between intangibility and physicality during the creative process, Sheludyakov is able to explore the origins of beauty, grace, femininity, elegance, harmony, and sensuality without restraint. The question remains as to how Sheludyakov chooses his models. Selection of nude models is surprisingly uncomplicated — acquaintances, friends, or family members, for example. It is simply a matter of identifying specific traits unique to each individual, and then accurately translating those traits into a cohesive image.
Sheludyakov only has one exception: professional models. Through experience, their body has become a logical, physical tool which remains distinctly detached from their authentic self. This ultimately limits emotional emancipation and decreases the possibility of unveiling the true, feminine essence. Although this degree of professionalism is highly admirable, the artist prefers the innocence of amateur models. Sheludyakov is known to be a prolific painter, so I asked about the duration of the entire process. He stated that creative processes vary from beginning to end. For example, the technical aspects of creating a nu féminin are somewhat similar to that of painting landscapes or producing images from the imagination.
However, the existential journey inherent to the production of a nu féminin is unrivalled due to lasting emotional bonds between subject and painter; painter and canvas. Commissioning live models facilitates the creative process by guiding line, form, and volume. It is important to remain vigilant so as to avoid producing flat, naturalistic work. Thus, understanding the difference between the physicality of form and a more profound, metaphysical side is essential.
The same holds true for landscapes. The immediate perception of colors, interpretation, and subsequent translation of experiences is more powerful during the plein-air painting process. Sheludyakov attempts to expedite the entire process in order to retain a certain freshness and spontaneity. For acrylic works, three to four days is sufficient. However, oil paintings require more finesse, averaging approximately ten days.
Once the paintings are finished, Sheludyakov lovingly releases them to the public with an open heart. When asked to define an exceptional painting, in general, the artist confidently stated that a true chef-d’oeuvre is the antithesis of indifference because it evokes admiration and encourages reflection. This type of work reaches deep emotional depths of the spectator and ultimately has the power to inspire others.
I recently obtained my third Master of Arts degree in Global Communications from the American University of Paris, and I have conducted extensive doctoral research about the effects of globalization on the Opéra national de Paris, so I was curious as to how the current international climate has personally affected Sheludyakov. It is evident that the globalized economy has transformed the art market, artists, and artistic production.
The notion of evolution is a salient topic which artists cannot ignore. Remaining in an isolated sphere is no longer a viable option or lucrative alternative. Sheludyakov is clearly aware of this paradigm shift in contemporary society and adopts a philosophical approach. Since creativity does not exist in a vacuum, artistic evolution is directly linked to inevitable transformation, active exploration, and ultimate change defined within the context of relevant sociocultural parameters – even if this approach may sometimes lead to an impasse.
Unfortunately, the sale of Sheludyakov paintings has suffered due to globalization and the inevitable democratization of the art market. Throughout the 1990’s until the early 2000’s, there was a strong appreciation for Russian contemporary artists. Since then, interest in Russian art has decreased significantly. In addition, the internet is saturated with artists of every genre, rendering it difficult to clearly differentiate one’s brand. Fortunately, Sheludyakov has maintained a close circle of faithful collectors and gallerists over the years. This is partially due to a resistance to short-term trends, increased online visibility that has been carefully nurtured, and complete confidence in the creative process.